Fracture means the disruption of the bone axis caused by the force greater than the bone can withstand.
Mostly, there is a pain, swelling and tenderness around the injury. Sometimes the sound of “crunch” can be heard in the moment of breaking. Visually, swelling, bruising, deformity (a limb may look out of place), displacement of the skin at the fracture site, as well as abnormal bone movements can be observed.
The most common fracture causes are:
- high energetic injury (a traffic accident, a fall from height, a hit, a gunshot);
- “overstressed bone” (often refers athletes who are subject to repetitive motion);
- osteoporosis or other bone disease.
The fracture can be:
- closed (the skin is unimpaired) or compound fracture (the skin may be pierced by the bone);
- stable/aligned (broken ends of the bone line up and are barely out of place) or with displacement of the fragments;
- simple or complex/comminuted (the bone shatters into few fragments and usually there is a significant soft tissue injury).
The fractures may refer to:
- the bone shaft (central part of the long bone);
- epiphysis or metaphysis of a long bone (the endings of the bone);
- in the proximal part – the bone part that is closer to the center of the body;
- in the distal part – away from the center of the body.